Earning a traditional or an online Ph.D. in Criminal Justice is a requirement for anyone who wants to work as a college professor or in a more advanced field within this industry. Criminal justice looks at the reasons behind criminal activities, but also at the ways in which society and law enforcement can deal with those criminals. Students working full-time jobs may need to look for online program that offers more flexibility and allows them to work in their classes around their other commitments. The most affordable online programs help those students save money while working on their degrees.
Many of the top and most affordable programs include concentrations or specializations that students can pick from based on where they want to work and what they want to do with their degrees. A criminal justice Ph.D. online program with a concentration in business administration, for example, prepares students for working in positions of authority such as taking on a management position with a government agency. Choosing a concentration in forensic science or a similar subject teaches students how to do research and follow a trail of criminal activities. The top affordable Ph.D. criminal justice online degree programs often provide students with two or more concentration choices.
All the figures listed in this article come directly from the National Center for Education Statistics, which tracks information relating to college degree programs and schools. The data is the most recent available. Each of the 10 schools listed here offer the lowest tuition rates for online criminal justice doctoral students.
Earning a doctoral degree requires more work on the part of students, but these programs cost more too. The data we found proves that students can enroll in one of these programs for less than $14,000 a year. Some programs offer a tuition rate of less than $10,000 a year with all fees added into that cost.
We also used the National Center for Education Statistics College Navigator, which is a type of database, to identify which schools offer these programs at the best prices. The criteria used to create this list included:
- Checking out all colleges that offer criminal justice Ph.D. programs and finding which of those programs are available online.
- Comparing the cost of each of those programs to create a list with the more expensive programs at the top and the most affordable programs at the bottom.
Ranking Low-cost Online Criminal Justice PhD Programs
10. Capella University
Online Doctor of Philosophy in Criminal Justice
Capella University’s online Ph.D in Criminal Justice teaches students how to become stronger and better leaders.
Average Graduate Tuition: $13,998 per year
Capella University is a unique school, because it has its headquarters in Minnesota but primarily offers online programs and courses. Founded in 1993 as The Graduate School of America, it originally offered online graduate programs and courses for doctoral students. It now has an online option for Ph.D. candidates that allows those students to earn their degrees online. The program lets students adapt their learning styles to better fit their classes, and it teaches them how to become stronger and better leaders. It offers four concentrations for students in higher education, criminology, corrections and Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR).
9. Walden University
Online Ph.D in Criminal Justice
The online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program at Walden University is fully accredited program.
Average Graduate Tuition: $12,075 per year
Based out of Minneapolis, Walden University offers degrees at levels, but puts an emphasis on doctoral and graduate degree programs. Established in 1970 as a graduate school that offered courses for adult learners, it gradually became more popular with busy younger students as well as those right out of high school or college. The university now offers a $5,000 grant for online students who enroll in one of its degree programs, which significantly brings down their tuition costs. This program requires that students do four residencies on its campus to interact with their professors and focus more on their specific classes.
8. Colorado Technical Institute
Online Doctor of Management – Criminal Justice
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Student of the Colorado Technical University online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program can enroll throughout the year.
Average Graduate Tuition: $10,540 per year
Formerly called Colorado Technical Institute and Colorado Technical College, Colorado Technical University is a for-profit university that opened in the 1960s with programs aimed towards military students. Many of the programs it offered served as vocational training programs that taught those students the skills needed to succeed after leaving the military. CTU now offers an online doctoral program in criminal justice that allows students to enroll and start classes at different points during the year. It features 96 credits of courses, including security management, current topics in computer science and information systems, quantitative research methods and principles of research methods and design.
7. Northcentral University
Online Ph.D. in Criminal Justice
San Diego, California
Northcentral University students in the online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program can finish their degrees in 45 months.
Average Graduate Tuition: $10,368 per year
Northcentral University is one of the only online doctoral research campuses operating on the Web today. That designation makes it clear that the university expects its doctoral candidates to do their own original research when working on their dissertations. This university offers a criminal justice program that is part of a business administration degree. It does not have a residency requirement, but it does ask students to take several classes at the same time that they do dissertation work. The program features 20 different classes that are worth a total of 60 credits. Northcentral University students can finish their degrees in 45 months.
6. California University of Pennsylvania
Online Doctor of Criminal Justice
CalU’s online Ph.D of Criminal Justice program is a two-year cohort program.
Average Graduate Tuition: $10,339 per year
California University of Pennsylvania is a public school that gets its name from the town of California, which is a small town located in Pennsylvania. Founded in 1852, Cal U started out offering bachelor’s programs before adding some master’s programs, but its first doctoral programs did not start until 2015. Its CJ doctoral program launched in July of 2017 and is a two-year cohort program designed to help students learn from their professors as well as their peers. Students enrolled in this program have the chance to complete work that will earn them credentials from the Pennsylvania Center for Criminological and Forensic Sciences.
5. Texas State University
Online Doctoral Program in Criminal Justice
San Marcos, Texas
Students in the online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program at Texas State University come from across the country.
Average Graduate Tuition: $9,605 per year
Texas State University is one of the largest public university systems in the state. Founded in 1899 as a normal school that offered education training programs to future teachers living in the Southwest, it later expanded to include programs on other topics, which led to it becoming both a state college and then a university. Its doctoral program accepts students from all across the country every year. Students must take some specific advanced courses in addition to working on their dissertations such as environmental criminology, criminal justice forecast and policy analysis, academic scholarship and communication and law and behavioral science.
4. Arizona State University
Online Criminology & Criminal Justice, Ph.D.
ASU is home to one of the largest university systems in the country offering many degrees, including an online Ph.D in Criminal Justice.
Average Graduate Tuition: $8,234 per year
Arizona State University is one of the largest university systems in the country and has a total enrollment of more than 70,000 students across all of its campuses. U.S. News & World Report ranked it the most innovative university in the United States and one of the country’s top schools, and ARWU and Washington Monthly also ranked it on a national scale. ASU is home to one of the nation’s highest rated criminal justice doctoral programs too. Students take courses on criminology and research methods before taking a comprehensive exam that determines if they should remain in the program. Only after passing the exam do they begin their dissertation work.
3. Sam Houston State University
Online Ph.D. in Criminal Justice
Students in the Sam Houston State University online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program must complete 58 credits.
Average Graduate Tuition: $7,762 per year
Sam Houston State University ranks among the oldest colleges in Texas and in the Southwest. Founded in 1879 and named after the Texas soldier of the same name, it began life as a normal institute that only offered classes in education and teaching. As its curriculum expanded over the years, SHSU developed a strong reputation that helped it grow to an enrollment of more than 20,000 students. Students in its criminal justice program must complete 58 credits to earn a doctoral degree, but 12 of those credits come from their dissertation work. They earn credits for taking classes like administration of justice and research design too.
2. University of Nebraska Omaha
Online Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice
The online Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice program at the University of Nebraska Omaha requires 36 credits of advanced work.
Average Graduate Tuition: $7,204 per year
The University of Nebraska Omaha is the main campus in this school system, which includes two other campuses in smaller cities. Founded in 1908, it is a metropolitan campus that sits in a major city. The university raised money to expand its facilities and provide more opportunities to its students. Omaha has a Ph.D. program that requires students complete 36 credits of advanced work above the graduate level. Students also work on their dissertations while taking some of those classes. The university offers students the chance to publish their dissertations and provides both online and traditional students with different financial aid and funding programs.
1. University of Maryland-University College
Online Criminal Justice Ph.D. Program
Students in the online Ph.D in Criminal Justice program at University of Maryland University College have up to five years to complete the program.
Average Graduate Tuition: $7,176 per year
The University of Maryland-University College is one of the largest schools in the state with an enrollment of more than 80,000 students. Originally founded as an extension campus run by the University of Maryland, it later split off and became a university of its own. Its Ph.D. program is open to students with a master’s or a bachelor’s degree, and those with a bachelor’s degree have the chance to earn a master’s and doctoral degree at the same time. Courses in this Ph.D. program include structural modeling, analysis of complex sample data and policy analysis. Students have up to five years to complete the program and their dissertations.
Other Online Doctorate in Criminal Justice Offerings
Michigan State University
Online Doctorate in Criminal Justice
Graduate Tuition Per Year: $14,062
University of the Rockies
Online Doctor of Psychology, Criminology and Justice Studies
Graduate Tuition Per Year: $18,336
Nova Southeastern University
Online Ph.D. in Criminal Justice
Graduate Tuition Per Year: $28,736
What Type of Careers are Available to Ph.D. Holders?
One of the common questions that many students have before enrolling in one of these programs is about the type of careers that are open to them once they graduate. Many students complete their degrees, because they want to work in colleges as professors. Professors are responsible for grading papers, assigning work, working with students and teaching classes nearly every day. Some teach three to five classes or more each semester. Colleges may require that professors continue doing research to receive tenure. Those who do not want to teach will find that they can seek work in research institutes across the country and for government agencies. These organizations hire Ph.D. holders to conduct research on subjects such as the risk factors associated with criminal behavior and what treatment options are best for repeat offenders.
How Much Do Criminal Justice Professionals Earn?
Some students may hesitate before enrolling in a criminal justice online Ph.D. program, because they think that the cost is not worthwhile. Those who weigh the cost of their education against the amount they can make later will find that it is worth the time to go back to school. Professors working for four-year public colleges can make more than $65,000 a year, and those working for private institutes have the chance to make even more. Junior and community colleges generally pay a little less. Vocational and tech schools also hire criminal justice professors with professional experience to train students on how to act and work in the field. Anyone working for a private research firm will find their salaries vary based on the need for workers.
What are Some of the Criminal Justice Disciplines?
Though criminal justice itself is a discipline or field of study, there are different disciplines available within this field. Some choose to study rehabilitation and corrections, which refers to the treatments and options offered to criminals. This can include jail or prison time as well as fines and therapy. Rehabilitation also includes the study of probation and parole programs. The law enforcement discipline focuses more on what officers do in the field. Research into law enforcement often looks at ways to increase the safety of those workers. Students can also choose to focus on subjects such as the court system, business administration or criminology. While criminal justice is essentially the study of the legal system as a whole, criminology focuses more on the reasons why criminals engage in illegal activities. Criminology courses cover risk factors, genetics and other issues that may make an individual prone to engage in these behaviors.
Is a Ph.D. Required for Government Workers?
Undergrads often enroll in criminal justice programs because they want to work for government agencies like the Department of Homeland Security, Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation. Those departments usually require that those applying for jobs have a bachelor’s degree. Some positions are only open to those with a graduate degree, but most agencies do not require that workers have a PhD. Students can get a criminal justice doctorate online while working for the government or before applying for any open position. These jobs often have other requirements such as the ability to pass a criminal background check. Applicants will usually need to pass a physical exam and a psychological exam too. They may need to take and pass multiple tests in between meeting with interview boards to get a job offer. The government will conduct a background check that looks for felonies and any other potential problems before offering an individual a job.
Do Colleges Require Doctoral Candidates Have a Master’s Degree?
Though some assume that online Ph.D. in Criminal Justice programs only admit students who already have a master’s degree, this isn’t necessarily true. A large number of schools actually have combined programs that give students the option of earning a graduate degree and then immediately making the transition to the doctoral program. Other schools give students the chance to do doctoral work while still working on a master’s degree. This is a good option for those who want to earn their degrees faster and those who want to dedicate a specific amount of time towards working on college. These programs may require that students do a thesis and then work on a dissertation just a year or two later, but there are programs with a non-thesis option that lets students take two or more extra graduate courses and skip doing a thesis.
What are Some of the Benefits of an Online Criminal Justice Ph.D.?
One major benefit of a cheap online criminal justice Ph.D. program is that it allows students to save more money on the cost of their education. Our list includes several programs priced at well under $10,000 a year that help students pay for their costs out of their own pockets or through other means. Unlike traditional programs that require students drive to the campus for classes and adviser meetings, online programs do not have any transportation expenses. A small number of programs have a residency requirement that asks students to spend time studying and working on the campus, but those schools will often help students cover the cost of their residences.
These programs have some other benefits for students too, including:
- Giving students the chance to set their own schedules and study around all their obligations
- Allowing students to find and use their own resources when doing work on their dissertations
- Helping students maintain any commitments they have while in school such as caring for loved ones or working a full-time job
How Can Ph.D. Students Pay for College?
Paying for a Ph.D. is on the mind of any student thinking about applying for a spot in one of these programs to study financial aid. In addition to the cost of tuition, students may face other expenses like transportation to and from the campus for a residency, transportation to libraries and other facilities to do research and textbooks and supplies needed in their classes. Some students will also want to purchase a new computer and/or software to use for dissertation work.
Traditional criminal justice programs often offer fellowships and programs that pay students for working as research and teaching assistants. Those attending online classes will need to look at other financial aid options such as grants. Grants are available from schools as well as research groups and public or private organizations relating to the criminal justice field. Some schools offer new Ph.D. students grants worth $1,000 to $5,000 or more as an incentive to enroll. There are scholarships available for those at the doctoral level too. Students can also apply for unsubsidized loans from the government that go to students in professional and doctoral programs. The government loan program actually allows students to borrow more than the $20,500 limit that they could borrow per year in their earlier years.
What is the Future Outlook for Criminal Justice Professionals?
Outlook is a term that analysts use when determining what the future looks like for certain industries and job types. The future outlook for those with a criminal justice Ph.D. is fairly high, but the exact outlook depends on the job that individual seeks and where he or she lives. Large cities like Miami, Los Angeles and New York have a greater need for research analysts and forensic specialists who can investigate crimes and prove the certain people committed those crimes. Those cities pay more but also have a higher cost of living, which means that workers pay more of their salaries for rent, food and other expenses. Smaller towns may have a high need for professionals with criminal justice experience. As those towns receive funding and grant money to modernize facilities, the town will need people skilled in new forms of technology to run those facilities.
We hope that the information provided here helps students find the right Ph.D. programs for them. Students who have less free time and those who work full-time, but still want to work in the field and get a doctoral degree, will find a good choice in an online Ph.D in Criminal Justice.
This concludes our ranking of the Top 10 Most Affordable Online PhD in Criminal Justice Programs for 2018.
TItle: Estimating the Effect of Race on Juvenile Court Decision-Making: A Comparison Method
Author: Shaun M. Gann, Ph.D.
Title: Is Corrections "Collar" Blind?: Examining the Predictive Validity of a Risk/Needs Assessment Tool on White-Collar Offenders (pdf coming soon)
Author: Erin Harbinson, Ph.D.
Title: Why Can't We Be Friends? Exploring Short-term Peer Selection and Peer Influence Dynamics Using Longitudinal Social Network Analysis(pdf coming soon)
Author: Samuel Peterson, Ph.D.
Title: Comparing Measures of the Concentration of Crime at Places and Times(pdf coming soon)
Author: YongJei Lee, Ph.D.
Title: Cumulative Disadvantage Across the Life Course: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample(pdf coming soon)
Author: Michael TenEyck, Ph.D.
Title: Redemption in an Era of Penal Harm: Moving Beyond Offender Exclusion
Author: Angela Thielo, Ph.D.
Title: Right on Crime: Conservative Reform in the Era of Mass Imprisonment (to be released 4/2019))
Author: Derek Cohen, Ph.D.
Title: The Freedom Fighter: A Terrorist's Own Story (to be released 12/6/18)
Author: Murat Haner, Ph.D.
Title: Moving Beyond the RNR and GLM Models: A New Vision for Offender Treatment
Author: Ronen Ziv, Ph.D.
Title: Adherence to the Risk, Need and Fidelity Principles: Examining the Impact of Dosage in Correctional Programming
Author: Kristin Bechtel, Ph.D.
Title: Collective Efficacy and Community Crime Rates: A Cross-National Test of Rival Models
Author: Cecilia Chouhy, Ph.D.
Title: Explaining the Adoption of Street-Code Attitudes among Latinos and its Effects on Criminal Offending
Author: Carlos Rojas-Goana, Ph.D.
Title: Beyond the Party Lifestyle: A Quantitative Analysis of Sexual Victimization Among College Students
Author: Kathryn Elvey, Ph.D.
Title: Sexual Assault Incident Characteristics and Confidante Responses
Author: Nicole Laskey, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing the Effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy: A Meta-Analysis
Author: Jennifer Lux, Ph.D.
Title: Reinventing Juvenile Justice: Examing the Effectiveness of the Targeted RECLAIM Initiative
Author: Myrinda Schweitzer Smith, Ph.D.
Title: Best Systemic Practices for the Management of Deaf Suspects, Defendants and Offenders
Author: Beau Shine, Ph.D.
Title: A Tale of Two States: An Examination and Comparison of Organizational Context in Correctional Institutions
Author: Jessica Warner, Ph.D.
Title: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Effects of Program Completion, Setting, and Integrity on Recidivism with Residential Community Correctional Programs
Author: Hyejin Kim, Ph.D.
Title: A Study of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) and its Antededents in Indian Police Agency
Author: Hanif Qureshi, Ph.D.
Title: Does Stickiness Matter?: A Longitudinal Examination of the Stability of Adolescent Peer Groups
Author: Brandon Dulisse, Ph.D.
Title: Crime-Reduction Effects of Open-Street CCTV's in Cincinnati
Author: HyungJin Lim, Ph.D.
Title: A Multi-Level Model of Personal Victimization Among South Korean Youths
Author: Sujung Cho, Ph.D.
Title: Predicting Arrest Probability Across Time: A Test of Competing Risk Perspectives
Author: Michelle Coyne, Ph.D.
Title: The Effect of Solitary Confinement on Institutional Misconduct: A Longitudinal Evaluation
Author: Ryan Labrecque, Ph.D.
Title: (Re) Revisiting the Special Sensitivity Hypothesis: Do White Collar Offenders Need to "Get Hard?"
Author: Matthew Logan, Ph.D.
Title: Lifestyle, Self-Control, and School-Based Violent Victimization in Turkey
Author: Rustu Deryol, Ph.D.
Title: Community Gardens and Crime: Exploring the Roles of Criminal Opportunity and Informal Social Control
Author: Lesli Blair, Ph.D.
Title: The Sex Offender Policy and Practice: Comparing the SORNA Tier Classification System and Static-99 Risk Levels
Author: Bobbie Ticknor, Ph.D.
Title: Examining Three Alternative Explanations for the Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Violent Victimization: Mediation, Moderation, and Contextual Effects
Author: Arelys Madero-Hernandez, Ph.D.
Title: A View From the Top: Managers' Perspectives on the Problem of Employee Theft in Small Businesses
Author: Jay P. Kennedy, Ph.D.
Title: Application of an Ecological Model to the Labeling of Sexual Agression
Author: Wendy Perkins Gilbert, Ph.D.
Title: Problem Framing in Problem-Oriented Policing: An Examination of Framing From Problem Definition to Problem Response
Author: Kathleen Gallagher, Ph.D.
Title: The Impact of Reentry Programs on Recidivism: A Meta Analysis
Author: Mirlinda Ndrecka, Ph.D.
Title: The Predictive Validity of the Ohio Youth Assessment System--Disposition Instrument: A Revalidation Study
Author: James McCafferty, Ph.D.
Title: Consistency or Discord: Meta-Analyses of Police Deisions to Search and Use Force
Author: P. Colin Bolger, Ph.D.
Title: Street Codes, Routine Activities, Neighborhood Context, and Victimization: An Examination of Alternative Models
Author: Susan McNeeley, Ph.D.
Title: Are Female Defendants Treated More Leniently by Judges? A Multilevel Analysis of Sex-Based Disparities at the Phases of Pretrial Release, Charge Reductions, and Sentencing
Author: Natalie Goulette, Ph.D.
Title: A Mixed-Methodological Exploration of Potential Confounders in the Study of the Causal Effect of Detention Status on Sentence Severity in One Federal Court TBD
Author: Angela Reitler, Ph.D.
Title: Environmental Corrections: Making Offender Supervision Work
Author: Lacey Schafer, Ph.D.
Title: Examining the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in the Context of Reliability, Validity, Equity, and Utility: A Six-Year Evaluation
Author: Anthony Flores, Ph.D.
Title: Resilience and Vulnerability in Adolescents at Risk for Delinquency: A Behaviorial Genetic Study of Different Response to Risk
Author: Jamie Newsome, Ph.D.
Title: Typologies of Female Offenders: A Latent Class Analysis Using the Women's Risk Needs Assessment
Author: Rachel Brushett, Ph.D.
Title: Decision Making in Criminal Justice Revisited: Toward a General Theory of Criminal Justice
Author: Dan Lytle, Ph.D.
Title: Putting Wayward Kids Behind Bars: The Impact of Custodial Placement on Recidivism
Author: Brian Lovins, Ph.D.
Title: An Empirical Examination of Variation on Effective Correctional Program Characteristics by Gender
Author: Lori Brusman Lovins, Ph.D.
Title: Victimization, Fear of Crime, and Perception of Risk in the Workplace: Testing Rival Theories With a Sample of Greek and Greek-Cypriot Journalists
Author: Spyridon Kodellas, Ph.D.
Title: Code of the Hallway: Examining the Contextual Effects of School Subculture on Physical Violence, Sexual Offending, and Non-Violent Delinquency
Author: Kristin Swartz, Ph.D.
Title: Meta-Analysis of Early Life Influences on Behavior in Criminals
Author: David Carter, Ph.D.
Title: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Correlates of Perceived Job Stress Among Police Officers
Author: Jennifer Childress Webster, Ph.D.
Title: Gender-Responsive Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Women and Men
Author: Valerie Bell, Ph.D.
Title: Are Needs Related to Pretrial Outcomes? An Examination of the Hamilton County Inventory of Need Pretrial Screening Tool
Author: Krista Gehring, Ph.D.
Title: Unraveling the Sources of Adolescent Substance Use: A Test of Rival Theories
Author: Rachel McArthur, Ph.D.
Title: The Effects of Individual Vulnerability and Lifestyle/Routine Activities on Fear of Crime and Perceptions of Risk in the School Setting
Author: Brooke Gialopsos, Ph.D.
Title: Fear of Crime Online: Examining the Effects of Perceived Risk and Online Victimization of Fear of Cyberstalkingy
Author: Billy Henson, Ph.D.
Title: College Students with ADHS: Extending the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework to Predict Sexual Victimization and Stalking
Author: Jamie Snyder, Ph.D.
Title: How Central Business Districts Manage Crime and Disorder: A Case Study in the Mechanisms of Place Management in Downtown Cincinnati
Author: Khadija Monk, Ph.D.
Title: Disability Status and Victimization Risk among a National Sample of College Students: A Lifestyles-Routine Activities Approach
Author: Heidi Scherer, Ph.D.
Title: Understanding Organizational and Ecological Impacts on Police Use of Formal Authority: Testing an Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance
Author: Cody Stoddard, Ph.D.
Title: The Effect of Victimization on Women’s Health: Does the Victim-Offender Relationship Matter?
Author: Megan Stewart, Ph.D.
Title: Local Law Enforcement in the Realm of Cyberspace: The Role of Local Law Enforcement Agegncies of Controllling Internet Crime
Author: James W. Carter, II, Ph.D.
Title: Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems: Agreement Between Police and Citizens and Impact on Citizen Attitudes
Author: Melissa Winesburg, Ph.D.
Title: Does Changing Ownership Change Crime? An Analysis of Apartment Ownership in Cincinnati
Author: Troy Payne, Ph.D.
Title: How Much Do Criminologist Know About Crime? Using Environmental Criminology to Assess Our Knowledge of Crime
Author: Justin A. Heinonen, Ph.D.
Title: Hurricane Katrina, Citizen Displacement, and Social Control: A Test of the Threat and Benign Neglect Hypotheses
Author: Andrew J. Myer, Ph.D.
Title: Adolescent Deviance Within Families and Neighborhoods
Author: Rebecca Schnupp, Ph.D.
Title: Diffusion of Innovation and Fraud in the Subprime Mortgage Market
Author: Cynthia Koller, Ph.D.
Title: Crime on Turkish Streetblocks: An Examination of the Effects of High Schools, on Premise Alcohol Outlets and Coffee
Author: Haci Duru, Ph.D.
Title: The Impact of Imprisonment on Reoffending: A Meta-Analysis
Author: Cheryl Lero Jonson, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Cincinnati Police Department’s Automatic License Plate Reader System
Author: M. Murat Ozer, Ph.D.
Title: Improving Statistical Modeling of Repeat Victimization: Zero-Inflated Effect and Bayesian Prediction
Author: Seong Min Park, Ph.D.
Title: White-Collar Offenders and the Prison Experience: An Empirical Examination of the “Special Sensitivity” to Imprisonment
Author: William Stadler, Ph.D.
Title: Being Pursued Online: Extent and Nature of Cyberstalking Victimization from a Lifestyle/Routine Activities Perspective
Author: Brad Reyns, Ph.D.
Title: The Construction and Validation of an Institutional Release Risk & Needs Assessment
Author: Richard Lemke, Ph.D.
Title: Structural Disadvantage, Terrorism, & Non-Terrorist Violent Crime in Turkey
Author: Ozkan Gok, Ph.D.
Title: Application of Situational Crime Prevention to Female Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Turkey
Author: Halil Akbas, Ph.D.
Title: Application of Situational Crime Prevention to Cross-Border Heroin Trafficking in Turkey
Author: Mehmet Unal, Ph.D.
Title: Girls and Boys, Apples and Oranges? A Theoretically Informed Analysis of Gender-Specific Predictors of Delinquency
Author: Charlene Taylor-Kindrick, Ph.D.
Title: Policing Styles in the Suburbs: A Test of Wilson’s Theory of Local Political Culture
Author: Theresa Ervin-Conover, Ph.D.
Title: Identifying the Correlates of Job Satisfaction for Job Resource Officers
Author: Audrey Coaston-Shelton, Ph.D.
Title: The Impact of Disorder and Fear on the Routine Activities of High School Students
Author: Ryan Randa, Ph.D.
Title: The Role of Genes and Abuse in the Etiology of Female Offending
Author: Jamie Vaske, Ph.D.
Title: Rethinking Gottfredson and Hirshi’s General Theory of Crime: A Behavioral Genetic Approach
Author: Danielle Boisvert, Ph.D.
Title: Reconceptualizing Crime as an Independent Variable: The Social and Personal Consequences of Criminal Involvement
Author: Matthew D. Makarios, Ph.D.
Title: Reconceptualizing Police Use of Force: Comparing the Determinants of Force & Coercion Across Alternative Measures
Author: Charles Klahm, Ph.D.
Title: Pretrial Release and Social Contexts: Is There a Link?
Author: Junhyuk Ryu, Ph.D.
Title: Getting a Handle on Street Violence: Using Environmental Criminology to Understand and Prevent Repeat Offender Problems
Author: Marie Skubak Tillyer, Ph.D.
Title: Social Conditioning of Police Officers: Exploring the Interactive Effects of Driver Demographics on Traffic Stop Outcomes
Author: Robert Tillyer, Ph.D.
Title: Maintaining Prison Order: Understanding Causes of Inmate Misconduct Within and Across Ohio Correctional Institutions
Author: Benjamin Steiner, Ph.D.
Title: Neighborhood Context and Intimate Partner Violence
Author: Emily Wright, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing the Predictive Validity of the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Recidivism Among Iowa Parolees and Probationers
Author: Brenda Vose, Ph.D.
Title: An Exploratory Study of Racial Variations in Preferences for Police Work
Author: Denise Nation, Ph.D.
Title: Gendered Pathways: An Empirical Investigation of Women Offenders’ Unique Paths to Crime
Author: Emily Salisbury, Ph.D.
Title: Procedural Justice During Police-Citizen Encounters
Author: Mengyan Dai, Ph.D.
Title: Bar Management and Crime Toward a Theory of Dynamic Theory of Place Management and Crime Hot Spots
Author: Tamara Madensen, Ph.D.
Title: The Neglect of Racial Responsivity: An Examination Of Why Race Matters In Correctional Treatment
Author: Georgia Spiropoulos, Ph.D.
Title: The Development of Criminal Suspicion by State Troopers During Motor Vehicle Stops
Author: Richard Johnson, Ph.D.
Title: The Intersection of Genes, the Environment, and Crime and Delinquency: A Longitudinal Study of Offending
Author: Kevin Beaver, Ph.D.
Title: Reconsidering Drug Court Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Review
Author: Deborah Koetzle Shaffer, Ph.D.
Title: Gender, Risk Factors, and Juvenile Misconduct: Assessing the Generality-Specificity Debate
Author: Leah Daigle, Ph.D.
Title: Determining the Influence of Self-Protective Behaviors on Violent Victimization Completion: Results from the National Crime Victimization Survey
Author: Shannon Santana, Ph.D.
Title: The Adoption of Crime Prevention Technologies in Public Schools
Author: Julie Kiernan Coon, Ph.D.
Title: Specialized Response Programs: Police Handling of Encounters Involving Persons with Mental Disorders
Author: Shamir Ratansi, Ph.D.
Title: An Examiniation of Print Media Organizational Processes in the Reporting of Homicide in the Houston Chronicle
Author: Kevin Buckler, Ph.D.
Title: Race and Repeats: Does the Repetitive Nature of Police Motor Vehicle Stops Impact Racially-Biased Policing?
Author: Lisa Growett Bostaph, Ph.D.
Title: Criminal Places: A Micro Level Study of Residential Theft
Author: Eric Jefferis, Ph.D.
Title: A Community of Peers – Promoting Behavior Change: The Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Community for Juvenile Male Offenders in Reducing Recidivism
Author: Jennifer Pealer, Ph.D.
Title: The Correctional Orientation Of “Child Savers:" The Level, Sources, and Impact of Support For Rehabilitation Among Juvenile Corrections Workers
Author: Kristie Blevins, Ph.D.
Title: Correctional Program Integrity and Treatment Effectiveness: A Multi-Site, Program-Level Analysis
Author: Christopher Lowenkamp, Ph.D.
Title: Enhancing the Protective Capacity of Mentoring Relationships and Strengthening the Social Bond
Author: Betsy Fulton Matthews, Ph.D.
Title: Potential Applications of an Existing Offender Typology to Child Molesting Behaviors
Author: Kimberly Gentry Sperber, Ph.D.
Title: Discretion or Direction? An Analysis of Patrol Officer Downtime
Author: Christine Famega, Ph.D.
Title: Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Offending Over the Life Course
Author: Lisa McCartan, Ph.D.
Title: Exploring The Use Of Formal Authority In Police-Citizen Encounters
Author: Robert Brown, Ph.D.
Title: False Positives in the Criminal Justice Process - An Analysis of Factors Associated with Wrongful Conviction of the Innocent
Author: Robert Ramsey, Ph.D.
Title: Close Circuit Television: The Cincinnati Experience
Author: David Hurley, Ph.D.
Title: The Sources And Impact of Inmate Perceptions of Correctional Officer’s Bases of Power
Author: Amy Stichman, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing The Effect Of Sex Offender Notification on Emotional, Cognitive, and Behavioral Reactions
Author: Victoria Beck, Ph.D.
Title: Risk Differentiation and Intensive Supervision: A Meaningful Union?
Author: Dena Hanley, Ph.D.
Title: Stories of Violent Men: Discursive Construction of Offender Identities
Author: Lois Presser, Ph.D.
Title: The Impact of Presumptive Sentencing Guidelines on Disparity In Sentencing in Ohio
Author: Timothy Griffin, Ph.D.
Title: Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment: An Analysis of Gender and Other Responsivity Characteristics and Their Effects on Success in Offender Rehabilitation
Author: Dana Jones Hubbard, Ph.D.
Title: A Tale of Two Crime-Types: An Examination of the Welfare-Crime Relationship
Author: Melissa Winston Burek, Ph.D.
Title: Policing Small Towns Rural Places Suburban Jurisdictions Officer Activities, Citizen Interactions
Author: John Liederbach, Ph.D.
Title: Police Unions: An Empirical Examination
Author: Colleen Kadleck, Ph.D.
Title: Personality and Criminal Behavior: Reconsidering the Individual
Author: Shelley Johnson-Listwan, Ph.D.
Title: Understanding Female Desistance From Crime: Exploring Theoretical and Empirical Relationships
Author: Elaine Gunnison, Ph.D.
Title: Integrity, Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Impact: Do All These Matter in the Civilian Review of the Police
Author: Melchor de Guzman, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing the Relative Effect of Macro-Level Predictors of Crime: A Meta-Analysis
Author: Travis Pratt, Ph.D.
Title: Maternal Risk Factors, Early Life Events, and Deviant Outcomes: Assessing Antisocial Pathways From Birth Through Adolescence
Author: Jeff Maahs, Ph.D.
Title: Love Me, Hate Me, Beat Me: The Impact of Child Maltreatment on Delinquency
Author: Shannon Barton Bellessa, Ph.D.
Title: Community Policing and Federal Civil Liability Under 42 USC 1983
Author: Thomas Hughes, Ph.D.
Title: The Meaning of Punishment: What Do Inmates Expect From Prison?
Author: Martha Henderson Hurley, Ph.D.
Title: Good Kids in Bad Circumstances: A Longitudinal Analysis of Resilient Youth
Author: Michael Turner, Ph.D.
Title: High School Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis
Author: Stephen Haas, Ph.D.
Title: Opening the ‘Black Box’: Assessing the Relationship Between Program Integrity and Recidivism
Author: Alexander Holsinger, Ph.D.
Title: Assessing Police-Citizen Encounters: Do Community and Beat Officers Differ?
Author: Kenneth Novak, Ph.D.
Title: Reconsidering Domestic Violence Recidivism: The Impact of Court Dispositions and Stake in Conformity
Author: Amy Thistlethwaite, Ph.D.
Title: Explaining Police Activities Across Urban Neighborhoods
Author: Brad Smith, Ph.D.
Title: Addressing the Distinct Experience of the Adolescent Female: Explaining Delinquency and Examining the Juvenile Justice System
Author: Kristi Holsinger, Ph.D.
Title: Educating the Public About the Police: The Lima PSA Project
Author: Christopher Stormann, Ph.D.
Title: Intensive Supervision Probation: The Effects of Supervision Philosophy on Intensive Probationer Recidivism
Author: Kelly Brown, Ph.D.
Title: Innovativeness in American Municipal Police Organizations
Author: William King, Ph.D.
Title: Beyond the Gatekeepers: Court Professionals’ Responses to Municipal Domestic Violence Cases in an Urban Area
Author: Jennifer Hartman, Ph.D.
Title: Explaining the Distribution of Random Gunfire: A Block-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical and Social Incivilities and Random Gunfire
Author: R. Cory Watkins, Ph.D.
Title: Bringing Light to Dark Places: An Occupational Study of Prison Chaplains
Author: Jody Sundt, Ph.D.
Title: Variety in Policing: Job Activities of Municipal Police Officers in Ohio
Author: Beth Sanders, Ph.D.
Title: How Kids View Cops: The nature of Juveniles’ Attitudes Toward the Police
Author: Yolander Hurst, Ph.D.
Title: Defining the Occupational Definition of Police Excessive Force
Author: Stephen Holmes, Ph.D.
Title: Specifying Public Support for Rehabilitation: Factorial Survey Approach
Author: Brandon Applegate, Ph.D.
Title: RECLAIM Ohio: An Innovative Policy Initiative in Juvenile Corrections
Author: Melissa Moon, Ph.D.
Title: An Evaluation of Paint Creek Youth Center
Author: Jill Gordon Potts, Ph.D.
Title: Parental Support in Juvenile Delinquency: A Test of Social Support Theory
Author: John P. Wright, Ph.D.