Bibliography Spanish American War Definition

Michael J. Crawford
Mark L. Hayes
Michael D. Sessions




The purpose of this publication is to encourage understanding and further study of the naval aspects of the Spanish-American War. Study of the sea services in this conflict is especially important because of the central role the Navy played in nearly every aspect of the war from logistics to diplomacy. American planners and leaders anticipated that the fight with Spain would be primarily a naval war. The U.S. Navy's victories at Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba were pivotal events that turned the course of the war and America's future. Joint Army-Navy operations at Santiago, Puerto Rico, and Manila sealed the success won by the U.S. Navy's command of the seas.

This bibliography will prove useful for several reasons. The centennial of the Spanish-American War has brought forth a number of new articles and books on the conflict. Moreover, the compilers of this bibliography have included numerous older works, many published during or just after the war, but not listed in earlier bibliographies, and works in languages other than English. Readers will find here the most comprehensive listing available of works, conveniently grouped by topic, that touch on the naval war. Scholars seeking original avenues of investigation for themselves or for their students will do well to examine the section on needs and opportunities for research and writing.

In a collaborative work like this one, it is often difficult to assign due credit. In general, however, the authors divided responsibilities as follows: Captain Michael Sessions, USNR, as commanding officer of the Center's Reserve Volunteer Training Unit, VTU 0615, prepared the preliminary list of works. Dr. Crawford, head of the Center's Early History Branch, and Mark L. Hayes, a historian in that branch, edited the list, appended additional works, verified the entries for accuracy and appropriateness, and wrote the annotations. Mr. Hayes researched and wrote the historical overview and the section on needs and opportunities for research and writing.

Captain John Charles Roach, USNR, drew the original sketches found throughout the bibliography. Captain Roach took the time to research and draft these representations during the same period he was completing some 150 artworks illustrating the international peacekeeping mission in Bosnia as a member of the Joint Military History Office. His contribution to this publication is evidence of a deep commitment to his art and to naval history. He deserves a hearty "Bravo Zulu."

I join the authors in expressing the hope that this publication will be a valuable resource to anyone interested in the history of our nation and of the United States Navy.

William S. Dudley
Director of Naval History


On 10 June 1898, one hundred years ago from the penning of this preface, Commander Bowman McCalla and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Huntington led a U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expedition into Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, in one of the most important actions of the Spanish-American War. The anchorage seized in this operation was crucial for the maintenance of a close blockade of Spanish warships at Santiago de Cuba, about forty miles to the west. In the histories of the war this event is often overshadowed by the larger battles of Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba. Similarly, in the histories of the U.S. Navy, the much longer Civil War and World War II often overshadow the important transitional period at the end of the nineteenth century. As authors, we hope the centennial of the Spanish-American War and this publication will remind the public and scholars of the influential place the events of 1898 hold in American history.

We are grateful to our colleagues within the Center for various forms of assistance. Mrs. Jean Hort, Director of the Navy Depart-ment Library, and her staff helped ably with on-line computer searches and interlibrary loan requests, as well as retrieved numerous works from the rare book room and special collections. Historians on the staff of the Early History Branch, E. Gordon Bowen-Hassell, Charles E. Brodine, Jr., Christine F. Hughes, and Carolyn M. Stallings, assisted in verifying and in copy editing bibliographical entries. Dr. Edward J. Marolda, the Senior Historian, and Dr. Jeffrey G. Barlow, a historian in the Contemporary History Branch, read and commented on the preliminary draft of the historical overview.

We also deeply appreciate the contributions of scholars from outside who lent their expertise. Dr. John R. Hébert, senior specialist in Hispanic bibliography of the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, offered a long list of suggested bibliographic entries written in Spanish. Dr. James R. Reckner, of the Depart-ment of History at Texas Tech University, and member of the Secretary of the Navy's Advisory Subcommittee on Naval History, offered his criticisms and suggestions.

As grateful as we are for the valuable assistance we received in preparing this work, we accept sole responsibility for the contents.

Michael J. Crawford
Mark L. Hayes
Michael Sessions

Spanish-American War: Bibliography

The Spanish American War in Motion Pictures
American Memory, Library of Congress.

This site features 68 motion pictures of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Revolution produced by the Edison Manufacturing Company and the American Mutoscope & Biograph Company between 1898 and 1901. A Special Presentation puts the motion pictures in chronological order; brief essays provide a historical context for their filming. This site is indexed by subject and searchable by keyword, and includes a link to resources and documents pertaining to the war in the Library’s Hispanic Division.

A War in Perspective: Public Appeals, Memory, and the Spanish-American Conflict
Alfonso W. Quiroz, Curator, Professor of History, Baruch College and Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York.

Part of a series of exhibitions and programs at eight cultural and academic institutions in the metropolitan New York area, this exhibit was curated for the New York Public Library by Professor Alfonso W. Quiroz. Designed to commemorate the centenary of the Spanish-American War, the site explores the patriotic appeals in newspapers, pamphlets, popular literature, maps, music, political cartoons, images, and motion pictures. It traces the sources of these public campaigns and perceptions of the war in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Spain, and the United States, and how these campaigns contributed to popular sentiments about the conflict. The exhibit is divided into five parts; each section contains text and approximately five to ten images. There are also chronologies of the Spanish-Cuban-American War (1895–98), the Spanish-American War (1898), and the Philippine-American War (1899–1902). An exhibition checklist gives a list and 25-word descriptions of items in the exhibit. There is a bibliography of 26 scholarly works on the Spanish-American War as well as links to 13 other Web exhibits related to the war.

Spain, The United States, and the American Frontier: Historias Paralelas
Library of Congress

This collection of primary and secondary sources explores the history of Spanish expansion into North America from Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, across the modern-day American West, and north to Alaska. There are more than 200 primary sources, including numerous texts, 118 maps, manuscripts, and first-hand accounts, all written between 1492 and 1898. Some of the highlights include La Florida del Inca, an account of the Hernando de Soto expedition through Florida and the southeastern part of North America, along with the Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego, published in 1848 as a special report to the United States Congress. All documents are available in English and many of the documents are available in Spanish, as well. The collection is searchable by keyword and title and can be browsed.

Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920
American Memory, Library of Congress.

The Detroit Publishing Company was a mass producer of photographic images—especially color postcards, prints, and albums—for the American market from the late 1890s to 1924, the year it went into receivership. Although many images in this collection were taken in eastern locations, other areas of the U.S., the Americas, and Europe are represented. More than 300 photographs were taken in Cuba during the period of the Spanish-American War.

Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914
Vincent Ferraro, Professor of International Politics, Mount Holyoke College.

Professor Ferrara compiled this list of primary source documents relating to American Foreign Policy. Documents include memoranda, speeches, journal articles, and meeting notes, among other things. The site provides no introduction, no index, and no background on the documents.

The World of 1898: The Spanish American War
Library of Congress

This Library of Congress collection includes essays, documents and resources (such as timelines) about the Spanish American War. It includes information about Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Spain and the United States.

George Percival Scriven: An American in Bohol, The Philippines, 1899-1901
The Digital Scriptorium, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.

Presents the diary of officer George Percival Scriven (1854–1940), part of the U.S. Army’s occupation of Bohol—a Philippine island—from 1900 to 1902. “The journal was written partly as a personal memoir and partly as a draft of notes for a book that he was planning on writing.” A background essay of 6,000 words on the occupation and one of 350 words on Scriven furnish the context for this valuable document, which is accompanied by 25 photographs from four other Duke University collections.

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