Free example persuasive essay on Animal Experimentation:
Throughout history, animal experimentation has played an important role in leading to new discoveries and human benefit. However, what many people tend to forget are the great numbers of animal subjects that have suffered serious harm during the process of experimentation. Many people are believed to be ignorant or misunderstand the nature of the lives that animals actually live, and are unable to understand the actual laboratory procedures and techniques. Other than the philosophical questions that arise, ethical (moral) questions are the main reason why many animal right activists want it banned in every country. Activists feel that to this day, there should be no good reason why any living thing should be subjected to this cruel punishment and unwanted torture just for serving another being’s needs.
Although animal experimentation has been around for centuries, the ethical revival of realization on the moral status of animals began in the 1970’s. This problem was a few among many that had been quietly hidden for years until the 1970’s.
Such movements like gaining rights for the oppressed, expressions of antiwar opinions in the U.S.A, and the women’s liberation movement, accompanied the movement for the ending animal experimentation. The animal rights movement has grown more and more complicated through its use of strategy and has successfully brought the issue of laboratory research to the eyes of the public. All forms of media, magazines, radio, television, newspapers, have increased their exposure of animal right protests over the last several years while giving room for groups to produce their own publications. In these publications, activists constantly make the analogy between the work of abolitionists before the emancipation and the efforts of animal right activists. This analogy of racism and “speciesism” was brought about by a philosopher named Richard Ryder in 1985 and brings up the issue of research with animal subjects to be emotionally unpredictable for many people. (Sperling Susan – Applied Ethics in Animal Research Introduction pgs 4-6)
One of the biggest problems and the main reason why animal experimentation should be banned is the large percentage of birth defects that occur. The difference is that humans may also a longer period of fetal development and be more sensitive to birth defects agents than other species. One example of another problem with animal experimentation are that animals can be given nicotine directly as opposed to being exposed to it as a human would for years. Another would be that stress caused by animal handling, whether it be because of lack food or water, may have adverse effects on pregnancy or its ability to mate with the opposite sex. Also these tests are too insensitive and tend to disregard learning or behavioral problems. Our plain existence can influence the behavior of animals and disturb activities such as feeding, care- giving, and mating conduct. (Cognitive and deep ethnology and the great ape project- page 82-86)
There have even been laws that have been recently erected to protect the existence and safety of these animal “victims”. One law known as Kanjorski’s Law states that any substance (that is tested on an animal) that can harm a fetal embryo in development, can call the validity of the tests into question. Several factors can determine the effects on the results based on the different kind of species that are used during experimentation. The genetic difference between species can affect its ability to defend itself or a difference in the placenta may also affect the animal tests. (Birth Defect Research-Why Animal Experiments Are Not the Answer)
In 1986, a German law was passed and was known as the Animal Protection Act. This act forbade experimentation of tobacco products, washing powders, cosmetics, and the testing of weapons on animals. Soon after this law was passed in Germany, many countries started to adopt the law along with new laws such as the ban on LD50 test and the Draize eye irritancy test. Ld50 is a lethal dose that painfully kills nearly 50 percent of the animals that it is injected into, and the Draize test which can cause blindness in rabbits. Places such as the UK define each limit as to having a limit that should not be succeeded, and if done so would be a criminal offense. Every decade, animal experimentation could be looked at in a different light and activists will always be there to defend animal rights. (Orleans, Barbara F. Ethical Themes Governing Animal Experiments pg 140-142)
From the 1960’s to the early 1980’s, teens from eleven to seventeen tried to impress judges of science- fair competitions with cruel live animal experiments. This is just one example of how animal experimentation exists everywhere when supervision is missing. It is also about how laws are not enforced to stop such heinous acts of abuse. The usual projects that the students did were, starving animals to death, blinding the animals, mammalian surgery, and the injection of lethal substances. Although, improvements have been made to convince schools to restrict animal testing.
Federal laws do not exist. Thus there are no provisions in this area that ban dissection or mistreatment, and the National Association of Biology Teachers are not responsible. However, the amendment made in 1985 to the Animal Welfare Act required a group committee to review how the uses of animals were to be used in the some of the college courses at some but not all.
Despite the fact that rats, mice and birds are excluded from the Animal Welfare Act, activist reform groups have just started their mission and are nowhere near the end. (Orleans, Barbara F. Ethnical Themes Governing Animal Experiments) We should make every effort to study separate animals and to learn more about their abilities to feel their torture, psychologically and physically to understand their true feelings. Hopefully in the future, we will no longer have to depend on animals to give us results on safe products. We could also be the ones chained up and experimented on by a higher being in the near future.
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What Is an Argumentative Essay?
An argumentative essay is a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. Argumentative essay outline is usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion.
50 MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS
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Argumentative Essay Example on Doublethink
The Importance of Doublethink to the Party’s control of Oceania
One of the hallmarks of the dystopic society of 1984 is the fact that the leaders have been able to achieve a level of surveillance that is not possible in the real world and certainly was not possible in the 1940’s. However, even Winston Smith himself notes that people are at least partly free in their own minds. In the world of 1984, the government cannot yet control people telepathically through technological means.
The problem is that their society really does depend on being able to police people’s behaviors and thoughts on every level, which introduces an instability. A society that depends entirely on mass surveillance is going to have a hard time staying alive. Doublethink more or less does allow the government to control people through their thoughts without the requisite technology or nearly magical abilities. With doublethink, the leaders get the citizens to police themselves, which saves resources and is fundamentally more effective.
The Nature of Doublethink and the Preliminary Destruction of Rebellions
In Orwell’s world, doublethink is characterized by holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously. It requires people to think on multiple levels at once. All of the citizens of Orwell’s world seem capable of this. They aren’t ordered to engage in doublethink: they naturally police their own thoughts. As such, they are able to stop thoughts that are contrary to the interests of the Party before those thoughts even form.
The Party is, therefore, able to crush rebellions long before they have started and with almost no resources. The Party doesn’t even have to openly crush rebellions since potential rebels destroy their own rebellions in their thoughts.
A Compensation for Believing in Lies
The people in Orwell’s world are so obsessed with holding the right beliefs according to the ideology of their government that they have to maintain those beliefs even when they contradict basic reality. When societies in real life have done this, the results have been disastrous. The Soviet Union, for instance, tried to do agriculture based on abstract socialist principles, which helped cause massive starvation.
The Party clearly has a similar problem, since they’re willing to endorse the idea that basic astronomy is wrong and that similar scientific principles are incorrect. However, because of the principle of doublethink, the Party is able to disbelieve in these principles while believing in them whenever they’re essential. They can stop themselves from falling into the traps of the ideologues of the past as a result. Essentially, they can have all of the benefits of science and reason without allowing science or reason to threaten their ideology. Their society would probably collapse otherwise.
Doublethink and the Destruction of Thoughts
Winston Smith notes that it is difficult for him to concentrate on one subject for very long by the end of the book after his mind has been destroyed through torture. The Party requires people to believe so many blatant lies in order to exist that it more or less has to destroy people intellectually. They do this through Newspeak, which is designed to limit people’s ability to organize their thoughts. Doublethink is just another part of that picture.
People who are constantly holding these two contradictory ideas at once are going to find it harder and harder to think critically or to even think at all. They will become almost intellectually incapable of resisting as a result. Doublethink and Newspeak work to stunt people and render them incapable of even conceiving of resistance.
Doublethink does what the Party could not do technologically: it destroys people’s ability to think, it causes people to use reason only when reason is both essential and safe, and it creates a layer of protection from all rebellions.
The Party requires people to believe in its ideology in order to function, and its ideology is fundamentally absurd. The Party also requires massive surveillance in order to function, and it isn’t possible for them to police the thoughts of citizens technologically. By getting people to think in a way that causes them to swallow everything that the Party says without any unintended consequences, the Party has created a population that is perfectly loyal to them. They’ve also created a version of loyalty that is more or less self-sustaining and that won’t harm them in any other way.
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