Writing Effective Comparison Of Contrast Essays

Posted on by Kall

Two Effective Ways on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing

Comparison and contrast essay writing is not that simple but it can very easy if you understand the different ways on doing it. If you think that when doing a comparison and contrast essay writing, you would only list down all the similarities and differences of two particular things then you’re wrong. There’s more to it than that kind of simple, spontaneous writing.

Comparison and contrast essay writing is done with a plan. You call this an outline. Every kind of essay, not just the comparison and contrast essay, need to have an outline before it becomes a good essay piece. An outline allows you to organize your ideas so that you can present them in a clear and coherent manner.

While you make your outline, you have to think which style of arrangement you’re going to use. There are two classic comparison and contrast essay writing style you: the block arrangement and the alternating arrangement. The two styles are further explained in the next two paragraphs.

Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing Style: Block Arrangement

In using the block arrangement, you’re going to describe each of the two things you’re comparing (object A and object B) in two separate paragraphs. You’re going to make statements about object A to form a single paragraph. You do the same for object B in the next paragraph. While writing your paragraphs, make sure that every statement from your object A paragraph has a corresponding statement in your object B paragraph. In that way, although you’re not directly comparing the two, the comparison can be easily identified by the readers coherently.

To further understand the block arrangement style, take a look at the following outline:

  1. Introduction (object A is World War I and object B is World War II)
  2. World War I
    1. Reason
    2. Countries Involved in the War
    3. Outcome
  3. World War II
    1. Reason
    2. Countries Involved in the War
    3. Outcome
  4. Conclusion

Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing Style: Alternating Arrangement

The second style of comparison and contrast essay writing is the alternating arrangement. This is also known as point by point arrangement. In this style, you’re going to make a paragraph focusing on a particular area or category of discussion. On that paragraph, you’re going to directly compare object A and object B. Just like how its name says, you’re going to compare the two things “point by point.”

Take a look at the outline below to further understand the alternating arrangement style for your comparison and contrast essay writing:

  1. Introduction (object A is World War I and object B is World War II)
  2. Reason for the War
    1. World War I
    2. World War II
  3. Countries Involved in the War
    1. World War I
    2. World War II
  4. Outcomes of the Wars
    1. World War I
    2. World War II
  5. Conclusion

TIP Sheet

A compare and contrast essay examines two or more topics (objects, people, or ideas, for example), comparing their similarities and contrasting their differences. You may choose to focus exclusively on comparing, exclusively on contrasting, or on both-or your instructor may direct you to do one or both.

First, pick useable subjects and list their characteristics. In fact, their individual characteristics determine whether the subjects are useable. After that, choose a parallel pattern of organization and effective transitions to set your paper above the merely average.

1. Picking a subject
Focus on things that can obviously be compared or contrasted. For instance, if you are examining an idea (political or philosophical) examine the opposite of that idea. Or, if you are examining a person, like a president, pick another president for comparison or contrast. Don't try to compare a president and a cab driver, or existentialism and a legislative bill on car tax refunds.

2. Listing characteristics
Divide a piece of paper into two sides. One side is for the first subject, the other for the second subject. Then, begin to list the similarities and differences that immediately come to mind. Concentrate on characteristics that either are shared or are opposing between the two subjects. Alternately, you may construct a Venn diagram of intersecting circles, listing the subjects' differences to either side and their similarities where the circles intersect. Keep in mind that for a balanced paper, you want to make point-by-point, parallel comparisons (or contrasts).

Similarities between my math and English instructors:
Both are welcoming and available to students.
Both are organized and keep a neat office.
Both are knowledgeable and professional.


Differences between my math and English instructors
Math teacher listens to classic rock.         English teacher listens to jazz.
Math teacher drinks Earl Grey tea.           English teacher drinks strong black coffee.
Math teacher likes to chat about movies.  English teacher sticks to business.

As you create your list, is it clear why you are comparing and contrasting these two subjects? Do you have a preference for one or the other? If so, make sure you are evaluating each side fairly. A point-by-point list helps you maintain balance.

Once you have a list, decide whether there are more similarities or differences between the topics. If there are more similarities, concentrate your paper on comparing. If there are more differences (or if, as in the example above, the differences are simply more interesting), concentrate on contrasting. If there is a balance of similarities and differences, you might concentrate on discussing this balance.

3. Organizing
There are at least two ways to organize a compare/contrast essay. Imagine you are examining Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, both Civil War generals. In your list you have uncovered important points of dissimilarity between them. Those points are their background, personalities, and underlying aspirations. (Call these three points A, B, and C.) You have decided to contrast the two subjects.

Here is one way to organize the body of this paper, addressing points A, B, and C for each subject. This paper will follow parallel order–A, B, and then C–for each subject:

A. Lee's background
B. Lee's personality
C. Lee's underlying aspirations

A. Grant's background
B. Grant's personality
C. Grant's underlying aspirations

However, here is another way to organize the same paper:

A. Lee's background
A. Grant's background

B. Lee's personality
B. Grant's personality

C. Lee's underlying aspiration
C. Grant's underlying aspiration

For a shorter paper, the above might represent three paragraphs; if you are writing a long paper and have a great deal of information, you may choose to write about each point, A, B, and C, in separate paragraphs for a total of six. However you decide to organize, make sure it is clear why you are examining this subject. You might be able to compare apples and oranges, for example, but why would you? Include any insights or opinions you have gathered. And yes, in general, three is the magic number. While there is no hard-and-fast rule that precludes creating a paper based on two points, or four, or five, a three-point discussion is manageable, especially for complex or abstract subjects. At the same time, a three-point structure helps you avoid oversimplifying, especially when addressing controversial topics in which discussions tend to become polarized–right or wrong, black or white, for or against. Three-point treatments encourage discussion of the middle ground.

4. Signaling transitions
Learn to use expressions that precisely convey contrast or comparison. These expressions, or transitions, signal contrast:

  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • however
  • otherwise
  • whereas
  • still
  • yet

These expressions signal comparison:

  • as well as
  • both
  • like
  • in common with
  • likewise
  • also

Signal words such as these help the reader understand the relationships between your sentences, paragraphs, and ideas. In particular, if you are both comparing and contrasting, signal words help sort out what's what. Second only to effective organization, effective use of these expressions will go a long way toward helping produce a good compare/contrast paper.

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